Centre for Science and Technology Studies Centre for Science and Technology Studies 2333AL Leiden Zuid Holland 31715273909

PathOS - Open Science Impact Pathways

PathOS aims to contribute to a better understanding and measurement of Open Science impacts and their causal mechanisms. This is pivotal in order to develop effective OS policy in the EU (European Union). It will do so by collecting concrete evidence of OS effects, by studying the pathways of OS practices, from input to output, outcome and impact, including the consideration of enabling factors and key barriers. Impacts and pathways will be developed in the three areas of science, society and economy. By investigating, measuring and comparing its costs and benefits together with its pathways, PathOS will (i) bring a better understanding for the implications of OS for science, economy and society, (ii) provide recommendations to policy makers and other actors in the R&I ecosystem as to how and to what extent OS should be promoted in a balanced way, and (iii) develop tools and methods for studying the causal effects of OS.
PathOS will keep a critical and realistic view, identifying areas where existing evidence and methods on impacts are more solid and indicating where there is a need for additional analyses. In addition, in the definition of impacts, PathOS will keep as far as possible a causal perspective, not assessing the benefits of OS per se but comparing the impact of OS with the impact of the same output in a non-OS mode. By focusing on specific OS practices, PathOS will follow a pragmatic and experimental approach, carefully reviewing methods and tools and expanding on existing knowledge by introducing, where appropriate, data driven/AI assisted methodology, to augment traditional R&I evaluation. PathOS moves between a more general perspective of describing OS indicators and possibilities and limitations for causal inference to more particular perspectives in seven case studies. Moreover, by comparing costs and benefits of the identified practices, PathOS will provide an assessment about the relative merits and areas for improvements. Finally, PathOS will reflect as far as possible the view and perceptions of all actors in the OS system (i.e., scientists, publishers, policy makers, industry, citizens) adopting a participatory approach, to bring a common understanding on the system dynamics and facilitate the exploitation of its results.


logo PathOS


1 September 2022 - 31 August 2025


Open Science, R&I assessment, key Impact Pathways, Open Science Impact


Athena Research & Innovation Center in Information Communication & Knowledge Technologies (AthenaRC), Universiteit Leiden CWTS, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), Know-Center GmbH Research Center for Data-Driven Business & Big Data Analytics (KNOW), OpenAIRE, Universidade do Minho (UMINHO), Technopolis Consulting Group Belgium (TGB), OPIX P.C., Centro Studi Industria Leggera Societa' Cooperativa (CSIL), European Molecular Biology Laboratory (ELIXIR)

CWTS Staff

Vincent TraagIngeborg Meijer, Ludo Waltman, Thed van Leeuwen, Rodrigo Costas, Tim Willemse, Zeynep Anli



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