Centre for Science and Technology Studies Centre for Science and Technology Studies 2333AL Leiden Zuid Holland 31715273909

Ton van Raan, Prof.dr.

Ton (A.F.J.) van Raan is emeritus professor of Quantitative Studies of Science. Founder and until 2010 Director of the Centre for Science and Technology Studies (CWTS), Leiden University, Netherlands. After his retirement as CWTS Director, he remained research professor. He studied mathematics, physics and astronomy at Utrecht University. PhD in Physics, Utrecht. Post-doctoral fellow at the University of Bielefeld (Germany), visiting scientist in the US, UK, and France. Work in atomic and molecular physics, laser-physics and astrophysics. From 1977 senior research fellow physics in Leiden, in 1985 'field switch' to science and technology studies, 1991 Professor. Research focus: application of bibliometric indicators in research evaluation; science as self-organizing complex system, statistics of bibliometric indicators, ranking and benchmarking of universities, mapping of science. In 1995 he received, together with the American sociologist Robert K. Merton, the Derek de Solla Price Award, the highest international award in the field of quantitative studies of science. He published (as author and co-author) around thirty articles in physics and two hundred in science and technology studies. Prof. van Raan set up a small company Science Consult for advice on research evaluation and science policy issues. On the occasion of his retirement as CWTS director he was awarded by the Queen of the Netherlands with the royal distinction of Knight in the Order of the Dutch Lion. For further information see www.cwts.nl/tvr/.

Current projects

  • Sleeping Beauties in Science
    A ‘Sleeping Beauty in Science’ is a publication that goes unnoticed (‘sleeps’) for a long time and then, almost suddenly, attracts a lot of attention (‘is awakened by a prince’). We developed a fast algorithm to detect in the Web of Science from 1980 until now publications that are not or hardly cited in, for instance, 10 years, and then suddenly become highly cited. We find that roughly half of the Sleeping Beauties in physics, chemistry, engineering and computer science are application-oriented and thus are potential sleeping inventions. Sleeping Beauties can also be cited in patents. In this way we make the link between the Sleeping Beauties and technological developments and thus we explore the existence of a 'dormitory of inventions'.
     
  • Scaling phenomena in science and urban systems
    Important socioeconomic city characteristics such as wealth and innovation capacity exhibit a nonlinear, power law scaling with population size. These findings mean that the larger the city, the more disproportionally they are places of wealth and innovation. Local properties of cities cause a deviation from the expected behavior as predicted by the power law scaling. Also universities show a similar behavior as cities in the distribution of the ‘gross university income’ (in terms of total number of citations) over ‘size’ (in terms of total number of publications). Moreover, the power law exponents for university scaling are comparable to those for urban scaling. Currently we are involved in a project on the relations between spatial scale and governance. This project is supported by the provincial government of South-Holland. You can find here the interim-report Onderzoek Ruimtelijke schaal en synergie in de Zuid-Hollandse netwerkeconomie and here the (draft) paper Urban Scaling and Its Relation with Governance Structures and Future Prospects of Cities.

Publications

Journal publications (85)

  • Winnink, J.J., Tijssen, R.J.W., & Van Raan, A.F.J. (2019). Searching for new breakthroughs in science: How effective are computerised detection algorithms? Technological Forecasting and Social Change. (paper)
  • Van Raan, A.F.J., & Winnink, J.J. (2018). Do younger Sleeping Beauties prefer a technological prince? Scientometrics, 114(2), 701-717. (paper)
  • Van Raan, A.F.J. (2017). Patent Citation Analysis and Its Value in Research Evaluation: A Review and A New Approach to Map Technology-Relevant Research. Journal of Data and Information Science, 2(1), 13-50. (paper)
  • Van Raan, A.F.J. (2017). Sleeping beauties cited in patents: is there also a dormitory of inventions? Scientometrics, 110(3), 1123-1156. (paper)
  • Van Raan, A.F.J., Van der Meulen, G., & Goedhart, W. (2016). Urban Scaling of Cities in the Netherlands. PLoS ONE, 11(1), e0146775. (paper)
  • Winnink, J.J., Tijssen, R.J.W., & Van Raan, A.F.J. (2016). Theory-changing breakthroughs in science: the impact of research teamwork on scientific discoveries. Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology, 67(5), 1210-1223. doi:10.1002/asi.23505/full (paper)
  • Hinze, S., Van Raan, A.F.J., & Reale, E. (2015). . Research Evaluation, 24(1), 1-3. (paper)
  • Van Raan, A.F.J. (2015). Dormitory of Physical and Engineering Sciences: Sleeping Beauties May Be Sleeping Innovations. PLoS ONE, 10(10), e0139786. (paper)
  • Costas, R., Van Leeuwen, T.N., & Van Raan, A.F.J. (2014). Erratum to "Effects of the durability of scientific literature at the group level: Case study of chemistry research groups in the Netherlands" [Res. Policy 42 (4) (2013) 886-894]. , 43(8), 1468-1468. doi:10.1016/j.respol.2014.04.006 (paper)
  • Waltman, L., Van Raan, A.F.J., & Smart, S. (2014). Exploring the relationship between the engineering and physical sciences and the health and life sciences by advanced bibliometric methods. PLoS ONE, 9(10), e111530. (paper)
  • Buter, R.K., & Van Raan, A.F.J. (2013). Identification and analysis of the highly cited knowledge base of sustainability science. Sustainable Science, 8(2), 253-267. doi:10.1007/s11625-012-0185-1 (paper)
  • Costas, R., Van Leeuwen, T.N., & Van Raan, A.F.J. (2013). Effects of the durability of scientific literature at the group level: Case study of chemistry research groups in the Netherlands. , 42(4), 886-894. doi:10.1016/j.respol.2012.11.006 (paper)
  • Van Eck, N.J., Waltman, L., Van Raan, A.F.J., Klautz, R.J.M., & Peul, W.C. (2013). Citation analysis may severely underestimate the impact of clinical research as compared to basic research. PLoS ONE, 8(4), e62395. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0062395 (paper)
  • Van Raan, A.F.J. (2013). Universities scale like cities. PLoS ONE, 8(3), e59384. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0059384 (paper)
  • Van Raan, A.F.J. (2012). Properties of journal impact in relation to bibliometric research group performance indicators. Scientometrics, 92(2), 457-469.
  • Waltman, L., Calero-Medina, C.M., Kosten, M.J.F., Noyons, E.C.M., Tijssen, R.J.W., Van Eck, N.J., Van Leeuwen, T.N., Van Raan, A.F.J., Visser, M.S., & Wouters, P. (2012). The Leiden Ranking 2011/2012: Data collection, indicators, and interpretation. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 63(12), 2419-2432. doi:10.1002/asi.22708 (paper)
  • Waltman, L., Van Eck, N.J., & Van Raan, A.F.J. (2012). Universality of citation distributions revisited. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 63(1), 72-77. doi:10.1002/asi.21671 (paper)
  • Buter, R.K., & Van Raan, A.F.J. (2011). Non-alphanumeric characters in titles of scientific publications: an analysis of their occurrence and correlation with citation impact. Journal of Informetrics, 5(4), 608-617.
  • Buter, R.K., Noyons, E.C.M., & Van Raan, A.F.J. (2011). Searching for converging research using field to field citations. Scientometrics, 86(2), 325-338. doi:10.1007/s11192-010-0246-0 (paper)
  • Costas, R., Van Leeuwen, T.N., & Van Raan, A.F.J. (2011). The "Mendel syndrome" in science: durability of scientific literature and its effects on bibliometric analysis of individual scientists. Scientometrics, 89(1), 177-205. doi:10.1007/s11192-011-0436-4 (paper)
  • Van Raan, A.F.J., Van Leeuwen, T.N., & Visser, M.S. (2011). Non-English papers decrease rankings. , 469(7328), 34. doi:10.1038/469034a (paper)
  • Van Raan, A.F.J., Van Leeuwen, T.N., & Visser, M.S. (2011). Severe language effect in university rankings: particularly Germany and France are wronged in citation-based rankings. Scientometrics, 88(2), 495-498. doi:10.1007/s11192-011-0382-1 (paper)
  • Waltman, L., Van Eck, N.J., Van Leeuwen, T.N., Visser, M.S., & Van Raan, A.F.J. (2011). On the correlation between bibliometric indicators and peer review: Reply to Opthof and Leydesdorff. Scientometrics, 88(3), 1017-1022. doi:10.1007/s11192-011-0425-7 (paper)
  • Waltman, L., Van Eck, N.J., Van Leeuwen, T.N., Visser, M.S., & Van Raan, A.F.J. (2011). Towards a new crown indicator: An empirical analysis. Scientometrics, 87(3), 467-481. doi:10.1007/s11192-011-0354-5 (paper)
  • Waltman, L., Van Eck, N.J., Van Leeuwen, T.N., Visser, M.S., & Van Raan, A.F.J. (2011). Towards a new crown indicator: Some theoretical considerations. Journal of Informetrics, 5(1), 37-47. doi:10.1016/j.joi.2010.08.001 (paper)
  • Buter, R.K., Noyons, E.C.M., & Van Raan, A.F.J. (2010). Identification of converging research areas using publication and citation data. Research Evaluation, 19(1), 19-27. doi:10.3152/095820210X492503 (paper)
  • Costas, R., Van Leeuwen, T.N., & Van Raan, A.F.J. (2010). Is scientific literature subject to a 'sell-by-date'? A general methodology to analyze the 'durability' of scientific documents. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 61(2), 329-339. doi:10.1002/asi.21244 (paper)
  • Nederhof, A.J., Van Leeuwen, T.N., & Van Raan, A.F.J. (2010). Highly cited non-journal publications in political science, economics and psychology: a first exploration. Scientometrics, 83(2), 363-374. doi:10.1007/s11192-009-0086-y (paper)
  • Van Raan, A.F.J., Van Leeuwen, T.N., Visser, M.S., Van Eck, N.J., & Waltman, L. (2010). Rivals for the crown: Reply to Opthof and Leydesdorff. Journal of Informetrics, 4(3), 431-435. doi:10.1016/j.joi.2010.03.008 (paper)
  • Costas, R., Bordons, M., Van Leeuwen, T.N., & Van Raan, A.F.J. (2009). Scaling Rules in the Science System: Influence of Field-Specific Citation Characteristics on the impact of Individual Researchers. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 60(4), 740-753. doi:10.1002/asi.21017 (paper)
  • Van Raan, A.F.J. (2008). Bibliometric statistical properties of the 100 largest European research universities: Prevalent scaling rules in the science system. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 59(3), 461-475.
  • Van Raan, A.F.J. (2008). Self-citation as an impact-reinforcing mechanism in the science system. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 59(10), 1631-1643.
  • Van Raan, A.F.J. (2006). Comparison of the Hirsch-index with standard bibliometric indicators and with peer judgment for 147 chemistry research groups. Scientometrics, 67(3), 491-502.
  • Van Raan, A.F.J. (2006). Statistical properties of Bibliometric indicators: Research group indicator distributions and correlations. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 57(3), 408-430.
  • Van Raan, A.F.J. (2005). Fatal Attraction: Conceptual and methodological problems in the ranking of universities by bibliometric methods. Scientometrics, 62, 133-143.
  • Van Raan, A.F.J. (2005). For your citations only? Hot topics in bibliometric analysis. Measurement: Interdisciplinary Research and Perspectives, 3, 50-62.
  • Van Raan, A.F.J. (2005). Mesurement of central aspects of scientific research: Performance, interdisciplinarity, structure. Measurement: Interdisciplinary Research and Perspectives, 3, 1-19.
  • Van Raan, A.F.J. (2005). Reference-based publication networks with episodic memories. to be published. Scientometrics, 63, 549-566.
  • Van Raan, A.F.J. (2005). Reply to the comments of Liu et al. Scientometrics, 64, 111-112.
  • Van Raan, A.F.J. (2004). Sleeping beauties in science. Scientometrics, 59(3), 461-466.
  • Van Leeuwen, T.N., Visser, M.S., Moed, H.F., Nederhof, A.J., & Van Raan, A.F.J. (2003). The Holy Grail of science policy: Exploring and combining bibliometric tools in search of scientific excellence. Scientometrics, 57, 257-280. doi:10.1023/A:1024141819302 (paper)
  • Van Raan, A.F.J. (2003). The use of bibliometric analysis in research performance assessment and monitoring of interdisciplinary scientific developments. Technikfolgenabschätzung, Theorie und Praxis, 12(1), 20-29.
  • Van Raan, A.F.J., Visser, M.S., Van Leeuwen, T.N., & Van Wijk, E. (2003). Bibliometric analysis of : Performance assessment and position in the journal landscape. Psychotherapy Research, 13(4), 511-528. doi:10.1093/ptr/kpg038 (paper)
  • Rinia, E.J., Van Leeuwen, T.N., & Van Raan, A.F.J. (2002). Impact measures of inderdisciplinary research in physics. Scientometrics, 53(2), 241-248. doi:10.1023/A:1014856625623 (paper)
  • Rinia, E.J., Van Leeuwen, T.N., Bruins, E.E.W., Van Vuren, H.G., & Van Raan, A.F.J. (2002). Measuring knowledge transfer between fields of science. Scientometrics, 54(3), 347-362. doi:10.1023/A:1016078331752 (paper)
  • Van Raan, A.F.J., & Van Leeuwen, T.N. (2002). Assessment of the scientific basis of interdisciplinary, applied research. Application of bibliometric methods in Nutrition and Food Research. , 31(4), 611-632. doi:10.1016/S0048-7333(01)00129-9 (paper)
  • Rinia, E.J., Van Leeuwen, T.N., Bruins, E.E.W., Van Vuren, H.G., & Van Raan, A.F.J. (2001). Citation delay in interdisciplinary knowledge exchange. Scientometrics, 51(1), 293-309. doi:10.1023/A:1010589300829 (paper)
  • Rinia, E.J., Van Leeuwen, T.N., Van Vuren, H.G., & Van Raan, A.F.J. (2001). Influence of interdisciplinarity on peer-review and bibliometric evaluations in physics research. , 30(3), 357-361. doi:10.1016/S0048-7333(00)00082-2 (paper)
  • Van Leeuwen, T.N., Moed, H.F., Tijssen, R.J.W., Visser, M.S., & Van Raan, A.F.J. (2001). Language biases in the coverage of the Science Citation Index and its consequences for international comparisons of national research performance. Scientometrics, 51(1), 335-346. doi:10.1023/A:1010549719484 (paper)
  • Van Leeuwen, T.N., Van der Wurff, L.J., & Van Raan, A.F.J. (2001). The use of combined bibliometric methods in research funding policy. Research Evaluation, 10(3), 195-201. doi:10.3152/147154401781777015 (paper)
  • Van Raan, A.F.J. (2001). Bibliometrics and internet: Some observations and expectations. Scientometrics, 50(1), 59-63.
  • Van Raan, A.F.J. (2001). Competition amongst scientists for publication status: Toward a model of scientific publication and citation distributions. Scientometrics, 51(1), 347-357.
  • Van Raan, A.F.J. (2001). Hot paper of sleeping beauty? Natuur & Techniek, 69(4), 46-47.
  • Van Raan, A.F.J. (2001). Two-step competition process leads to quasi power-low income distributions. Application to scientific publication and citation distributions. Physica A, 298, 530-536.
  • Van Raan, A.F.J. (2000). Bibliométrie et évaluation de la recherche scientifique. Gestions Hospitalières, 401(Décembre), 861-865.
  • Van Raan, A.F.J. (2000). On growth, aging, and fractal differentiation of science. Scientometrics, 47(2), 347-362.
  • Van Raan, A.F.J. (2000). R&D evaluation at the beginning of the new century. Research Evaluation, 9(2), 81-86.
  • Noyons, E.C.M., Moed, H.F., & Van Raan, A.F.J. (1999). Integrating research performance analysis and science mapping. Scientometrics, 46(5), 591-604.
  • Van Raan, A.F.J. (1999). Advanced bibliometric methods for the evaluation of universities. Scientometrics, 45(3), 417-423.
  • Noyons, E.C.M., & Van Raan, A.F.J. (1998). Advanced mapping of science and technology. Scientometrics, 41(1-2), 61-67.
  • Noyons, E.C.M., & Van Raan, A.F.J. (1998). Monitoring scientific developments from a dynamic perpective. Self-organized structuring to map neural network research. Journal of the American Society for Information Science, 49(1), 68-81.
  • Rinia, E.J., Van Leeuwen, T.N., Van Vuren, H.G., & Van Raan, A.F.J. (1998). Comparative analysis of a set of bibliometric indicators and central peer review criteria - Evaluation of condensed matter physics in the Netherlands. , 27(1), 95-107. doi:10.1016/S0048-7333(98)00026-2 (paper)
  • Van Raan, A.F.J. (1998). Assessment of social sciences: the use of advanced bibliometric methods as a necessary complement of peer review. Research Evaluation, 7(1), 2-6.
  • Van Raan, A.F.J. (1998). De impact van onderzoeksgroepen: meten aan ons natuurkundig weten. Nederlands Tijdschrift voor Natuurkunde, 64(12), 316-317.
  • Van Raan, A.F.J. (1998). Herverdelen op kwaliteit. Hypothese, 5(1 juni), 6-9.
  • Van Raan, A.F.J. (1998). In matters of quantitative studies of science the fault of theorists is offering too little and asking too much. Scientometrics, 43(1), 129-139.
  • Van Raan, A.F.J. (1998). Tellen en meten: publiceren is kennisverspreiding maar tegelijkertijd materiaal voor bibliometrie. Nederlands Tijdschrift voor de Psychologie en haar Grensgebieden, 53, 235-238.
  • Van Raan, A.F.J. (1998). The influence of international collaboration on the impact of research results: some simple mathematical considerations concerning the role of self-citations. Scientometrics, 42(3), 413-428.
  • Davidse, R.J., & Van Raan, A.F.J. (1997). Out of Particles: Impact of CERN, DESY and SLAC research to fields other than physics. Scientometrics, 40(2), 171-193.
  • Van Raan, A.F.J. (1997). : State-of-the-art. Scientometrics, 38(1), 207-220.
  • Van Raan, A.F.J. (1997). Science as an international enterprise. Berichte und Mitteilungen der Max-Planck-Gesellschaft, 97(1), 253-277.
  • Van Raan, A.F.J. (1997). Science as an international enterprise. Science and Public Policy, 24(5), 290-300.
  • Van Raan, A.F.J. (1997). The future of the quality assurance system: its impact on the social and professional recognition in the era of electronic publishing. Journal of Information Science, 23(6), 445-450.
  • Tijssen, R.J.W., & Van Raan, A.F.J. (1994). Mapping changes in science and technology: bibliometric co-occurrence analysis of the R&D literature. Evaluation Review, 18(1), 98-115. doi:10.1177/0193841X9401800110 (paper)
  • Nederhof, A.J., & Van Raan, A.F.J. (1993). A bibliometric analysis of 6 economics research groups - A comparison with peer-review. , 22(4), 353-368. doi:10.1016/0048-7333(93)90005-3 (paper)
  • Nederhof, A.J., Meijer, R.F., Moed, H.F., & Van Raan, A.F.J. (1993). Research performance indicators for university departments: A study of an agricultural university. Scientometrics, 27(2), 157-178. doi:10.1007/BF02016548 (paper)
  • Van Raan, A.F.J., & Tijssen, R.J.W. (1993). The neural net of neural network research: an exercise in bibliometric mapping. Scientometrics, 26(1), 169-192. doi:10.1007/BF02016799 (paper)
  • Tijssen, R.J.W., & Van Raan, A.F.J. (1990). Net Citation Balances: a measure of influence between scientific journals. Journal of the American Society for Information Science, 41(4), 298-305. (

Emeritus Professor of Quantitative Studies of Science

T: +31 71 527 7953

E: vanraan@cwts.leidenuniv.nl


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